Moscow State University Program of Entrance Examinations in Chemistry
The program of entrance examinations on chemistry in Moscow State University consists of two sections. The first section lists the basic theoretical concepts of chemistry, which can be used to predict chemical and physical properties of substances. The second section is devoted to specific elements and their compounds.
Section I. FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMISTRY
The subject of chemistry. Chemistry as a natural science. Concepts of mass and energy. The basic concepts of chemistry: matter, molecule, atom, electron, ion, chemical element, chemical formula. Relative atomic and molecular mass. Mole. Molar mass.
Chemical transformations. The law of conservation of mass and energy. The law of constant proportions. The laws of stoichiometry.
Atomic structure. Atomic nucleus. Isotopes. Stable and unstable nuclei. Radioactive transformations, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. The law of radioactive decay. Half-life of isotopes.
Wave-particle dualism of electron. Uncertainty principle. Atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers. The Pauli exclusion principle. The Hund's rule. Ground-state and excited-state electron configurations.
Mendeleev Periodic law and its connection to electronic structure of atoms. Periodic table of elements.
Molecular structure. Chemical bonding. Covalent, ionic, metallic, hydrogen bonds. Covalent bond formation: exchange and donor-acceptor mechanisms. Binding energy. Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity. Bond polarity, inductive effect. Multiple bonds. The model of hybridization. Molecular geometry and its dependence on electronic structure. Electron delocalization in conjugated systems, mesomeric effect. The concept of molecular orbitals.
Valence, oxidation number. Structural formulas. Isomerism. Structural isomers, stereo-isomers.
The states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. Phases. Phase transitions. Gases. The gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gas. Avogadro's law. Molar volume. Liquids. Association of molecules in liquids. Solids. Cubic and hexagonal close packings.
Classification and nomenclature of chemical substances. Pure substances, mixtures, solutions. Elementary substances, allotropy. Metals and nonmetals. Compounds. The main classes of inorganic compounds: oxides, hydroxides, acids, salts. Complex compounds. The main classes of organic compounds: hydrocarbons; halogen-, oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds. Polymers and macromolecules.
Classification of chemical reactions. Various types of bond breakage. Homolytic and heterolytic reactions. Redox reactions.
Thermochemistry. Thermochemical equations. The heat of formation of chemical compounds. The Hess's law and its consequences.
The rate of chemical reaction. The concept of reaction mechanism. Elementary reaction. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. The dependence of homogeneous reaction rate on concentration (the rate law). Rate constant and its dependence on temperature. Arrhenius equation, activation energy.
Catalysis. Catalysts. Examples of catalytic processes. Typical mechanisms of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
Reversible reactions. Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant, the degree of transformation. Displacement of chemical equilibrium under action of temperature and pressure (concentration). Le Chatelier's principle.
Disperse systems. Colloid systems. Solutions. Formation of solutions. Solubility and its dependence on temperature and nature of solvent. Mass content, mole fraction, molar concentration, volume fraction, and their interconversion. Colligative properties of solutions. Solid solutions. Alloys.
Electrolytes. Ionic solutions. Electrolytic dissociation of acids, bases, and salts. Acid-base equilibria. Protic acids, Lewis acids. Ampholytes. Dissociation constant, degree of dissociation. Ionic product of water. pH. Hydrolysis of salts. Solubility product. Formation of complex ions in solutions. Coordination number. Stability constant.
Redox reactions in solutions. Determination of stoichiometric coefficients in redox equations: electron balance, half-reactions. Standard reduction potentials. Electrolysis of melts and solutions. Faraday laws of electrolysis.
Section II. ELEMENTS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS
Students should use Periodic law to predict the properties of elements. The characteristic of an element includes: electronic configurations; possible valences and oxidation states; forms of elementary substances; main compounds, their physical and chemical properties, laboratory and industrial methods of preparation; occurrence of element in nature; practical use and applications.
Description of chemical properties should include main acid-base and redox reactions as well as qualitative reactions.
Hydrogen. Isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrides of metals and nonmetals. Water. Hydrogen peroxide.
Halogens. Hydrogen halides. Oxygen-containing compounds of chlorine.
Oxygen. Oxides and peroxides. Ozone.
Sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide, metal sulfides and polysulfides. Sulfur dioxide and trioxide. Sulfurous and sulfuric acids and their salts. Esters of sulfuric acid. Sodium thiosulfate.
Nitrogen. Ammonia, ammonium salts, amides of metals, nitrides. Nitrogen oxides. Nitrous and nitric acids and their salts. Esters of nitric acid.
Phosphorus. Phosphane, phosphides. Phosphorus oxides. Phosphorus halides. Ortho-, metha-, and diphosphoric acids. Orthophosphates. Esters of orthophosphoric acid.
Carbon. Isotopes of carbon. The simplest hydrocarbons: methane, ethylene, acetylene. Carbides of calcium, aluminum, and iron. Carbon monoxide and dioxide. Carbonyls of transition metals. Carbonic acid and its salts.
Silicon. Silane. Magnesium silicide. Silicon dioxide. Silicic acids, silicates.
Boron. Boron trifluoride. Boric acid. Sodium tetraborate.
Noble gases. Main compounds of krypton and xenon.
Alkali metals. Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides and salts of alkali metals.
Alkaline earth metals, magnesium, beryllium; their oxides, hydroxides, and salts. Grignard reagents.
Aluminum. Aluminum oxide, hydroxide, and salts. Complex compounds of aluminum. Aluminosilicates.
Copper, silver. Copper (I) and (II) oxides, silver (I) oxide. Copper (II) hydroxide. Salts of silver and copper. Complex compounds of silver and copper.
Zinc, mercury. Oxides of zinc and mercury. Zinc hydroxide and its salts.
Chromium. Chromium (II), (III), and (VI) oxides. Chromium (II) and (III) hydroxides and salts. Chromates and dichromates. Complex compounds of chromium (III).
Manganese. Manganese (II) and (IV) oxides. Manganese (II) hydroxide and salts. Potassium manganate and permanganate.
Iron, cobalt, nickel. Iron (II), (II)–(III), and (III) oxides. Iron (II) and (III) hydroxides and salts. Ferrates. Complex compounds of iron. Salts and complex compounds of nickel (II) and cobalt (II).
The characteristic of each class of organic compounds should include: electronic and spatial structure of compounds; trends in physical and chemical properties in a homologous series; nomenclature; types of isomerism; main types of reactions and their mechanisms.
The characteristic of specific compounds should include: physical and chemical properties; laboratory and industrial methods of preparation; practical use and applications. Chemical properties should be presented by reactions involving both radical and functional groups.
The structural theory as a basis of organic chemistry. Carbon skeletons. Functional groups. Homologous series. Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism. The mutual influence of atoms in molecules. Classification of organic reactions according to their mechanism and charge of active particles.
Saturated hydrocarbons: alkanes and cycloalkanes. Conformers.
Alkenes and cycloalkenes. Conjugated dienes.
Alkynes. Acidic properties of alkynes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene and its homologues. Styrene. Reactions of aromatic system and hydrocarbon radical. Orientation rules in monosubstituted benzene derivatives. The simplest condensed aromatic hydrocarbons.
Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons: alkyl-, aryl- and vinylhalides. Substitution and elimination reactions.
Simple and polyatomic alcohols. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. Phenols. Ethers.
Carbonyl compounds: aldehydes and ketones. Saturated, unsaturated, and aromatic aldehydes. Keto-enol tautomerism.
Carboxylic acids. Saturated, unsaturated, and aromatic acids. Mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Carboxylic acid derivatives: salts, anhydrides, halides, esters, amides. Fats.
Nitrocompounds: nitromethane, nitrobenzene.
Amines. Aliphatic and aromatic amines. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. Basicity of amines. Quaternary ammonium salts and bases.
Polyfunctional compounds. Halogen-substituted acids. Oxyacids: lactic, tartaric, and salicylic acids. Amino acids: glycine, alanine, cysteine, serine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysin, glutamic acid. Peptides. The structure of proteins.
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides: ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, fructose. Cyclic forms of monosaccharides. Stereoisomerism of carbohydrates. Disaccharides: cellobiose, maltose, lactose, sucrose. Polysaccharides: starch, cellulose.
Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds: pyrrole, pyridine, pyrimidine, purine. Pyrimidine and purine bases. The structure of nucleic acids.
Polymerization and polycondensation reactions. Specific polymers: polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, polytetrafluoroethylene, rubbers, copolymers, phenol formaldehyde resins, synthetic and artificial fibres.
See also:Example problems in chemistry for the entrance
Chemistry Department of Moscow State University